Botany By Rajyalakshmi

Botany By Rajyalakshmi Botany By Rajyalakshmi
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Botany By Rajyalakshmi

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General characteristics of the kingdom Monera are as follows:
They are primitive organisms.
All organisms of the kingdom are prokaryotes.
They are present in both living and non-living environment.
They can survive in harsh and extreme climatic conditions like in hot springs, acidic soils etc.
They are unicellular organisms.
Membrane bound nucleus is absent.
DNA is in double stranded form, suspended in the cytoplasm of the organism, referred as nucleoid.
A rigid cell wall is present.
Membrane bound cellular organelles like mitochondria are absent.
Habitat - Monerans are found everywhere in hot springs, under ice, in deep ocean floor, in deserts and on or inside the body of plants and animals.
Nutrition - autotrophs - can prepare their own food, heterotrophs - depend on others for food, saprophytes - feed on dead and decaying matter, parasitic - live on other host cells for survival and cause, symbiotic - in mutual relation with other organisms, commensalism - it is where one organism is benefited and the other is not affected, mutualism - where both the organisms are benefited.
Respiration - respiration in these organisms vary, they may be obligate aerobes - the organisms must have organisms for survival; obligate anaerobes - the organisms cannot survive in the presence of oxygen; facultative anaerobes - these organisms can survive with or without oxygen.
Circulation - is through diffusion.
Movement - is with the help of flagella.
Reproduction is mostly asexual, sexual reproduction is also seen. Asexual reproduction is by binary fission, sexual reproduction is by conjugation, transformation and transduction.G